Common name: the Asian Common Toad
Conservation status: Least Concern
Distribution: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, India, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas and Natuna Islands.
Introduced to: Bali, Sulawesi, Ambon, New Guinea and Madagaskar
Size: up to 150 mm
Description: several bony ridges on the top of the head: along the edge of the snout (canthal ridge), in front of the eye (pre-orbital), above the eye (supra-orbital), behind the eye (post-orbital), and a short one between the eye and ear (orbito-tympanic). The snout short and blunt. The space between the eyes broader than the upper eyelid width. The ear drum or tympanum very distinct and at least as wide as two thirds the diameter of the eye. The first finger often longer than the second and the toes at least half webbed. A warty tubercle found just before the junction of the thigh and shank (sub-articular tubercle) and two moderate ones on the shank (metatarsus). There is no skin fold along the tarsus. The dorsal side covered with spiny warts. The parotoids prominent, kidney-shaped or elliptical and elongated. The dorsal side is yellowish or brownish and the spines and ridges are black. The underside unmarked or spotted.
Habitat: various lowland habitats, including agricultural and urban areas
Diet: various invertebrates
Reproduction: breeding period lasts throughout the year, but in some regions is restricted to monsoon season. Eggs are laid into the water and arranged in double jelly string